It was the spring of 2011 when I decided to apply to the AMS programme. If I remember correctly, the decision was based on my gut feeling and it was a right one. AMS was related to “perceived” world more than many other programmes in the faculty of science and technology as was also stated in the slogan “bridging the gap between measurements and society”.

5 years after the graduation I am still thankful for taking the journey, and I wanted to remind to myself and to others the three aspects that distinguished the programme from many others.

1) Combination of science and society. If you have the opportunity to combine your own favourite scientific topic (in my case biochemistry and measurement science) with knowledge about requirements related to law, regulations, and standards one has the possibility to give your thoughts a new perspective. It was beneficial for me in the labour market – there are not many people who know both of these aspects simultaneously which makes an AMS graduate a valuable specialist, mostly in private sector, but also in “pure” science. (I am currently working as a quality assurance specialist at Kevelt AS, which is a pharmaceutical manufacturing company in Estonia.)

2) Improvement of communication skills. There was a lot of group work during the studies, which improved my social skills. There is nothing more important than human relations! We had the possibility to study with people from Uzbekistan, Latvia, China, United Kingdom, Ukraine, Jordan, Romania, France, Turkey, and many more. This enabled to study about other cultures, but also how to communicate with people from other cultures.

3) The inspiring (!) lecturers. Their eyes were sparkling when they spoke about their topics so vividly. I believe that people are best at what they really love to do and I aim for the same in my professional career.

I could not thank Prof. Ivo Leito more for such an important contribution to our (students´) lives as leading the AMS programme. He is passionate about what he is teaching and sincerely interested in answering the endless questions, giving us the opportunity to find our better selves in the progress of studies.


The_Winning_C_Team_and_the_Baby_Boss_InstrumentThe winner of the student team work of the EACH Winter school 2018 is team C – Snežana Đorđević, Kenneth Arandia, Lydia Man, Mohan Ghorasaini!

They built an instrument for controlling Baby food temperature – the Boss Baby Bottle Sensor. The instrument senses the temperature of a baby food container and indicates with LED lamps whether the temperature is too low, suitable or too high. In the latter case the system runs a fan for cooling the food. Nice instrument and nice presentation!



Photos (Ivo Leito): Up: Kenneth, Lydia, Snežana and Mohan with the instrument and the prize (sweets). Right: Baby Boss Bottle Sensor in operation – cooling a too hot drink.


Turbidimeter lab at EACH Winter School 2018

Turbidimeter lab at EACH Winter School 2018

Possibly the most exciting activity at the EACH Winter School 2018 is the teamwork aiming at building some simple instrumentsusing the Arduino Integrated Development Environment (, see also

The instruments built were thermometer, light intensity meter and turbidimeter (!). All are small and simple, but highly useful devices. The Arduino motherboard is programmed and the obtained data are managed using laptops and a dedicated software. So, instruments can be built at very low cost and virtually everywhere.


Measuring with self-made turbidimeter

Measuring with self-made turbidimeter

It is quite a joy to generate analytical data (even if not the most accurate) using an instrument that the student has built his/herself!

Photos (by Ivo leito) show students working in the improvised “instrument manufacturing lab”.

Let there be light! The LED source of the turbidimeter

Let there be light! The LED source of the turbidimeter

Prof_Jerome_Randon_Explaining_Organization_of_EACH_Winter_School_2018On Jan 22, 2018, the third Winter School of the EACH programme started in Valpré (Lyon, France). Altogether 36 students from more than 20 countries participate.

The Winter School offers a diverse set of activities to the participants. There are lectures on advanced analytical chemistry topics (Smart sensors, high-resolution NMR, etc) by top experts, group works and entertainment. Several sessions are presented by practitioners from reserach labs and industry. The intense working is counterbalanced by social activities.

EACH_Lyon_team_explaining_their_thesis_work_and_life_in_LyonTraditionally an important activity in the Winter school is selecting first year students to study tracks. In order to give one more piece of information what the study tracks are about, there was a session of presentations on the first day by second year students on their master thesis topics (see photos).

EACH_Uppsala_team_explaining_their_thesis_work_and_life_in_UppsalaAnother exciting session planned in the Winter school is related to Do-it-yourself activities – building a sensor-based control system prototype and a simple turbidimeter.




Full information about the Winter School activities is available at the EACH Winter School web page.

Photos (Jayaruwan Gunathilake): Prof. Jérôme Randon explaining the organization of the Winter School (upmost photo); Groups of second year students from Lyon (up right), Åbo (right) and Uppsala (up left) explaining the life and master thesis work at their universities.

We wish all the participants enjoyable experience!



Measurements and computations of acidity and basicity of strong and superstrong acids (superacids) and bases in organic solvents is among the core research topics at the UT Chair of Analytical Chemistry. In a recent works (Chem. Sci. 2017, 8, 6964-6973.,    J. Phys. Org. Chem. 2013, 26, 162-170.,    J. Phys. Chem. A 2015, 119, 735–743.,    J. Phys. Chem. A 2016, 120, 3663–3669.) the behavior of a number of acids – ranging from weak to strong and superstrong acids (superacids) was examined in three solvents (water, acetonitrile, 1,2-dichloroethane) and in the gas phase. Acidities (pKa values) of a number of different acids including the well-known superacids trifluoromethanesulfonic (triflic) acid, bis-trifylimide (Tf2NH), etc as well as the carborane superacids (closo-carborane superacids), but also weaker acids (HCl, acetic acid, phenol) etc are examined in the above mentioned solvents. pKa of superacids are not easy to find in literature. Trends of acidity changes on moving from water to the gas phase depnding on the on the nature of the acidity centre and the molecular structure are analyzed. The acidity orders are different in water, MeCN, DCE and the gas phase. In some cases – notably, the hydrohalogenic acids HCl, HBr and HI – the differences are dramatic. These three acids are among the strongest known acids in water but have modest acidity in the gas phase. In contrast, 9‑C6F5‑Octafluorofluorene, a weak acid in water (approximately of the strength of phenol) is quite strong acid in the gas phase, beating any of the hydrohalogenic acids.

It is demonstrated that the decisive factor for behavior of the acids when transferring between different media is the extent of charge delocalization in the anion and that the recently introduced WAPS parameter in spite of its simplicity enables interpretation of the trends in the majority of cases. The acidity data together with references to specific publications are collected in the Table below.

Table of pKa valuesa of acids in different solvents.































Para-Toluenesulfonamide, 4-CH3-C6H4-SO2-NH2






























2,4-Dinitrophenol, 2,4-(NO2)2-C6H3OH












Acetic acid, CH3COOH
























Picric acid, 2,4,6-Trinitrophenol






























Cyanoform, (CN)3CH






Triflicid, trifluoromethanesulfonic acid, CF3SO2OH






Hydrochloric acid, hydrogen chloride, HCl






Hydrobromic acid, hydrogen bromide, HBr






Sulfuric acid, H2SO4












Hydroiodic acid, hydrogen iodide, HI






CB11H12H, unsubstituted closo-Carborane superacid






B12H12H2, unsubstituted closo-Dodecaborate superacid






CB11F12H, perfluoro-closo-Carborane superacid






B12F12H2, perfluoro-closo-Dodecaborate superacid












a Values from unless noted otherwise. There are numerous comments and details to these values. Please see the original articles for details and comments. GA values are given in kcal mol-1. pKa values in the gas phase are approximate and have been obtained from the GA values by dividing with 1.364 kcal mol-1. b Ion pair pKa values relative to picric acid in 1,2-dichloroethane. c Values from d Values from e Value from E. V. Anslyn, D. A. Dougherty, Modern Physical Organic Chemistry, University Science Books, Sausalito, 2006. f Values from DCE values have been recalculated from absolute to relative, in order to be comparable with the rest. g Values from h Crude estimates from DCE data by considering that bulk water is by 53 kcal mol-1 more basic than bulk DCE and bulk acetonitrile is by 42 kcal mol-1 more basic than bulk DCE.


(This post was initially posted on Feb 2, 2013. On Jan 15, 2017 a number values in the table have been replaced by more reliable values from more recent publications. In addition, some compounds were added to the in order to give a fuller picture. The changes concern only the table. The image has not been changed and should be viewed as illustrative)


Huian_Liu_in_lab_with_GC_instrumentThe master theses of the EACH programme have usually high practical value. However, this does not prevent them to lead to cutting edge scientific results.

The master thesis of Huian Liu – EACH 2017 graduate from the Lyon study track – titled Gas separation by high pressure gas chromatography using monolithic columns is a good example. At its core the thesis was devoted to investigating the behavior of monolithic GC columns in separation of small hydrocarbons for achieving high efficiency and short analysis time – an important issue in oil refineries.

As an additional value, however, it involved experimenting with a novel detector – vacuum UV absorption detector (VUV detector). VUV detector is an emerging detector in GC, enabling simultaneous detection, identification and quantitation of analytes.

In chromatography there are detectors of two response types – concentration-sensitive and mass-sensitive detectors. The response type is important in planning separation, and especially in quantitation. As a result of Huian’s work it was firmly established that VUV detector is a concentration-sensitive, not mass-sensitive detector. This result was considered scientifically so significant that it was accepted for publication by the number one chromatography journal in the world – Journal of Chromatography A (!): Huian Liu, Guy Raffin, Guillaume Trutt, Jérôme Randon J. Chrom. A, 2017, 1530, 171–175. Congratulations to Huian and the team!

Huian is continuing his studies as a PhD student at UCBL.


(Photo: Huian Liu in lab with the GC instrument)


Monika_Sandy_Rudolf_MarkoThis June and September, the first intake of students graduated successfully from the EACH programme (See the graduation blogposts at Uppsala, Lyon and Åbo).

Just few months later, 14 out of our 17 fresh graduates have already obtained positions! Some work in the professional/industrial field, some in academic field. Their jobs range from research assistant at a university to project manager at an international corporation. Several have chosen to continue their studies as PhD students. The reflections of some of our graduates on the programme are here:



Marko, working as project leader in the Industrial Development at Servier (France), writes:
I have spent amazing 2 years in EACH Programme, that represents a perfect balance between studying and travelling. Throughout this period, we had the opportunity to be educated by the experts in the field of Analytical Chemistry. The study track – Industrial Analysis held in France gave me an important insight into the field that I was not so familiar with before I had the opportunity to spend 6 months of the Programme among well-educated and highly-skilled professionals in the company Axel’One, where I was doing my internship. Since Axel’One is a collaborative research platform, I was engaged in several different projects with different companies. This enabled me not only to enrich my knowledge and skills in applied analytical chemistry, but also to significantly expand my professional network. In the end, I was offered a job in France, within a company Servier, as a Project Lead in the Industrial Development.



Monika, working as research assistant at the University of Exeter (United Kingdom), writes:
The Excellence in Analytical Chemistry program was an extremely valuable experience that increased rapidly the course of my career. Taught by highly competent and respected professors it gives the opportunity to gain all the necessary skills in modern analytical techniques. It has been a pleasant, exceptional experience and honor to be a part of EACH!

Monika is simultaneously pursuing doctoral study at Exeter.



Sandy, now working in the laboratory of the Akademiska sjukhuset hospital in Uppsala, Sweden, writes:
EACH program was so fruitful. It provided me with the skills needed to kick off my career path by providing a wide range of courses delivered by passionate tutors who really care about your success. Moreover, EACH has wonderful activities like a winter school where you can get knowledge and unforgettable social activities. Thanks to everyone who contributes to the success of EACH!




Rudolf, now a doctoral student at the Örebro University (Sweden), focusing on analytical chemistry of environmental pollutants, adds:
EACH program exposed us to new (study) environments and without doubt provided an invaluable experience. This project offered me a chance to study a specific field in depth. The obtained skills were crucial for pursuing of third cycle studies. All in all, I got more out of the program than I expected in the beginning.



The success of our graduates is also the success of the EACH programme! This has also been recognised by the European Commission who has decided to extend the funding of Erasmus Mundus scholarships for the EACH programme.


Agnes Heering successfully defended her PhD thesis on experimental realization of the unified pH scale

On December 6, 2017 Agnes Heering, an alumna of AMS, the sister programme of EACH, successfully defended her PhD thesis titled Experimental realization and applications of the unified acidity scale.

Her work literally redefines the way the pH of non-aqueous and mixed aqueous solution is understood and measured. The main focus of the experiments was on validating the measurement approach and measuring the unified pH values, i.e. pHabs values, of HPLC mobile phases (eluents). Her work introduces a conceptually new approach of measuring pH of mixed-solvent liquid chromatography (LC) mobile phases and has been published in the Analytical Chemistry journal: Unified pH Values of Liquid Chromatography Mobile Phases. Anal. Chem. 2015, 87, 2623–2630.

Mobile phase pH is very important in LC, but its correct measurement is not straightforward and all commonly used approaches have deficiencies. The new and fundamentally correct approach developed by Agnes enables direct comparison of acidities of solutions made in different solvents, based on chemical potential of the proton in the solutions.

The work by Agnes represents the first experimental realization of the pHabs concept using differential potentiometric measurement for comparison of the chemical potentials of the proton in different solutions (connected by a salt bridge), together with earlier published reference points for obtaining the pHabs values (referenced to the gas phase) or pHabsH2O values (referenced to the aqueous solution). The liquid junction potentials were estimated in the framework of Izutsu’s three-component method.
She determined the pHabs values for a number of common LC and LC-MS mobile phases and formed a self-consistent pHabs scale. This scale enables for the first time direct comparison of acidities of any LC mobile phases: with different organic additives, different buffer components etc. Agnes has developed a possible experimental protocol of putting this new approach into chromatographic practice and has tested its applicability. She has demonstrated that the ionization behavior of bases (cationic acids) in the mobile phases can be better predicted by using the pHabsH2O values and aqueous pKa values than by using the alternative means of expressing mobile phase acidity. Description of the ionization behavior of acids on the basis of pHabsH2O values is possible if the change of their pKa values with solvent composition change is taken into account.

The defence was successful in every respect. Agnes presented very well, answered questions confidently and convincingly demonstrated to everyone that she is really on top of this whole matter.

(Photo: Agnes Heering and prof. Peeter Burk, the chairman of the defence committee, during defence)


Todd_Pagano_working_with_EACH_students_in_labDuring Nov 20 to Dec 1 we had the pleasure to host visiting scholar, prof. Todd Pagano from the Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT), USA. He conducted a two week-intensive course Principles and applications of fluorescence spectroscopy.

In this course, students reviewed the principles of fluorescence spectroscopy, were introduced to the impact of photophysical phenomena on fluorescence data, and discussed new directions of fluorescence in analytical chemistry. Techniques in multidimensional fluorescence spectroscopy with chemometric analysis were highlighted, especially in the context of novel applications in environmental and related fields.

Todd_Pagano_Lecturing_in_EACH_programmeThe course consisted of lectures, seminars, tutorial sessions and a lab practical. The latter was specifically set up for this course by prof. Pagano and was very much appreciated by students. The analysis that was carried out was determination of caffeine in beverages by fluorescence quenching.

Altogether 23 students (out of them 13 EACH students) participated in the course and their feedback was overwhelmingly positive.

Prof. Pagano is a passionate educator. He was the director of the Laboratory Science Technology program at Rochester Institute of Technology’s National Technical Institute for the Deaf, which is a unique science programme, specifically designed for deaf students. He was named “2012 U.S. Professor of the Year” by the Council for Advancement and Support of Education and the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching.

Todd_Pagano_setting_up_lab_practical_in_EACH_programmeBesides the EACH Erasmus Mundus JMD, prof. Pagano’s visit was funded as part of a project by the US Fulbright Specialist programme.

(Images: top left, prof. Pagano working with students in the lab; right: prof. Pagano lecturing; bottom left: prof. Pagano setting up lab practical)


LC_MS_Validation_MOOC_Participants_Countries_2017On Tuesday, November 28, 2017 the web course LC-MS Method Validation was launched for the second time as a MOOC (Massive Online Open Course). There are 423 registered participants (by more than 100 more than in 2016) from 71 countries, ranging from Bolivia to Indonesia and from Sweden to Tanzania. Image on the left shows the countries where the participants come from.

This is a practice-oriented on-line course on validation of analytical methods, specifically using LC-MS as technique. The course introduces the main concepts and mathematical apparatus of validation, covers the most important method performance parameters and ways of estimating them. The LC-MS validation course is delivered by a team of 8 teachers, each with their own specific area of competence. This way it is expected to offer the best possible knowledge in all the different subtopics of analytical method validation.

The full set of course materials is accessible from the web page The course materials include videos, schemes, calculation files and numerous self-tests (among them also full-fledged calculation exercises). In order to pass the course the registered participants have to take all tests and get higher than 50% score from each of them. These tests are available to registered participants via the Moodle e-learning platform. Participants who successfully pass the course will get a certificate from the University of Tartu.

It is planned to run this course as MOOC again in autumn 2018.

(Image: Wikimedia Commons)